Papers by topic

Aging

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (2015). Aging effects in item and associative recognition memory for pictures and words. Psychology and Aging, 30, 669-674.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Aging and predicting inferences: A diffusion model analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 240-254.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Aging and IQ effects on associative recognition and priming in item recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 416-437.

Ratcliff, R., Love, J., Thompson, C. A., & Opfer, J. (2012). Children are not like older adults: A diffusion model analysis of developmental changes in speeded responses. Child Development, 83, 367-381.

Starns, J.J., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Age-related differences in diffusion model boundary optimality with both trial-limited and time-limited tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 19, 139-145.

Kuhn, S., Schmiedek, F., Schott, B., Ratcliff, R., Heinze, H-J., Duzel, E., Lindenberger, U.,
and Levden, M. (2011). Brain areas consistently linked to individual differences in perceptual decision-making in younger as well as older adults before and after training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2147-2158.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2011). Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 464-487.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2010). Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks. Cognitive Psychology, 60, 127-157.

Starns, J.J., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). The effects of aging on the speed-accuracy compromise: Boundary optimality in the diffusion model. Psychology and Aging, 25, 377-390.

Ratcliff, R. (2008). Modeling aging effects on two-choice tasks: Response signal and response time data. Psychology and Aging, 23, 900-916.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2007). Application of the diffusion model to two-choice tasks for adults 75-90 years old. Psychology and Aging, 22, 56-66.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2006). Aging and individual differences in rapid two-choice decisions. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 626-635.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2006). Aging, practice, and perceptual tasks: A diffusion model analysis. Psychology and Aging, 21, 353-371.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., Smith, P. L., & McKoon, G. (2005). Aging and response times: A comparison of sequential sampling models. In, Measuring the Mind: Speed, Control, and Age, (pp. 3-32), J. Duncan, P. McLeod, & L. Phillips (Eds.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, England.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., Gomez, P. & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging in the lexical-decision task. Psychology and Aging, 19, 278-289.

Thapar, A., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2003). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging on letter discrimination. Psychology and Aging, 18, 415-429.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A. & McKoon, G. (2003). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging on brightness discrimination. Perception and Psychophysics, 65, 523-535.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2001). The effects of aging on reaction time in a signal detection task. Psychology and Aging, 16, 323-341.

Ratcliff, R., Spieler, D. & McKoon, G. (2000). Explicitly modeling the effects of aging on response time. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 1-25.

Alzheimer Disease

Aschenbrenner, A.J., Balota, D.A., Gordon, B.A., Ratcliff, R., & Morris, J.C. (2016). A diffusion model analysis of episodic recognition in individuals with a family history for Alzheimer disease: The Adult Child Study. Neuropsychology, 30, 225-238.

Anxiety + Depression

White, C.N., Ratcliff, R., & Vasey, M.W. (in press). Anxiety-related threat bias in recognition memory: The moderating effect of list composition. Cognition and Emotion.

White, C.N., Kapucu, A., Bruno, D., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2014). Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership. Cognition and Emotion, 28, 867-880.

White, C. N., Ratcliff, R., Vasey, M. W., & McKoon, G. (2010). Anxiety enhances threat processing without competition among multiple inputs: A diffusion model analysis. Emotion, 10, 662-677.

White, C. N., Ratcliff, R., Vasey, M. W., & McKoon, G. (2010). Using diffusion models to understand clinical disorders. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54, 39-52.

White, C., Ratcliff, R., Vasey, M. & McKoon, G. (2009). Dysphoria and memory for emotional material: A diffusion model analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 181-205.

Aphasia

Ratcliff, R., Perea, M., Colangelo, A. & Buchanan, L. (2004). A diffusion model account of normal and impaired readers. Brain and Cognition, 55, 374-382.

Children/Developmental

Thompson, C.A., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (in press). Individual differences in the components of children’s and adults’ information processing for simple symbolic and non-symbolic numeric decisionsJournal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Ratcliff, R., Love, J., Thompson, C. A., & Opfer, J. (2012). Children are not like older adults: A diffusion model analysis of developmental changes in speeded responses. Child Development, 83, 367-381.

Decision Making and Cognition (general)

Leite, F. P., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). What cognitive processes drive response biases? A diffusion model analysis. Judgment and Decision-Making, 6, 651-687.

Farrell, S., Wagenmakers, E-J., & Ratcliff, R. (2006). 1/f noise in human cognition: Is it ubiquitous, and what does it mean? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 737-741.

Rouder, J.N., & Ratcliff, R. (2006). Comparing exemplar- and rule-based theories of categorization. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 9-13.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2005). Human cognition and a pile of sand: A discussion on serial correlations and self-organized criticality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 108-116.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Estimation and interpretation of 1/f noise in human cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 579-615.

McNamara, T., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1984). The mental representation of knowledge acquired from maps. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 10, 723-732.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1979). Roots of modern cognitive psychology. (Review of Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing by Lachman, Lachman, & Butterfield). Contemporary Psychology, 24, 917-918.

Discourse + Text Processing

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2016). Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests. Cognition, 146, 453-469.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2015). Cognitive theories in discourse-processing research. In E.J. O’Brien, A.E. Cook, & R.F. Lorch, Jr., Inferences during reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yap, M. J., Sibley, D. E., Balota, D. A., Ratcliff, R., & Rueckl, J. (2015). Responding to nonwords in the lexical decision task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 597-613.

Gomez, P., Perea, M. & Ratcliff, R. (2013). A diffusion model account of masked versus unmasked priming: Are they qualitatively different? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1731-1740.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Aging and predicting inferences: A diffusion model analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 240-254.

Yap, M.J., Balota, D.A., Sibley, D.E., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Individual differences in visual word recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 53-79.

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2008). A model of letter position coding: The overlap model. Psychological Review, 115, 577-601.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2008). Meanings, propositions, and verbs. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15, 592-597.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2008). Passive parallel automatic minimalist processing. In, Better than Conscious? Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications for Institutions, C. Engel & W. Singer, (Eds.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G. (2008). A diffusion model account of criterion shifts in the lexical decision task. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 140-159.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2007). Interactions of meaning and syntax: Implications for models of sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 270-290.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2005). “Meaning through Syntax” in sentence production and comprehension: Reply to McRae et al. (2005). Psychological Review, 112, 1032-1039.

Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model account of the lexical decision task. Psychological Review, 111, 159-182.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2003).  Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490-525.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2001). A multinomial model for short-term priming in word identification. Psychological Review, 108, 835-846.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2001).  Counter model for word identification: A reply to Bowers (1999). Psychological Review, 108, 674-681.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1998). Memory based language processing: Psycholinguistic research in the 1990s. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 25-42.

Allbritton, D.W., McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1996). Reliability of prosodic cues for resolving syntactic ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 714-735.

McKoon, G., Allbritton, D.W., & Ratcliff, R. (1996). Sentential context effects on lexical decisions with a cross-modal instead of an all-visual procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1494-1497.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1995). The minimalist hypothesis: Directions for research. In Weaver, C.A., Mannes, S., & Fletcher, C.R. (Eds.), Discourse comprehension: Essays in honor of Walter Kintsch. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1994). Sentential context and on-line lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1239-1243.

McKoon, G., Ratcliff, R., & Ward, G. (1994). Testing theories of language processing: An empirical investigation of the on-line lexical decision task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1219-1228.

Greene, S.B., Gerrig, R.J., McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1994). Unheralded pronouns and the management of common ground. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 511-526.

McKoon, G., Ward, G., Ratcliff, R., & Sproat, R. (1993). Morphosyntactic and pragmatic factors affecting the accessibility of discourse entities. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 56-75.

McKoon, G., Ratcliff, R., Ward, G, & Sproat, R. (1993). Syntactic prominence effects on discourse processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 593-607.

McKoon, G., Greene, S., & Ratcliff, R. (1993). Discourse models, pronoun resolution, and the implicit causality of verbs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 1-13.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1992). Inference during reading. Psychological Review, 99, 440-466.

Greene, S.B., McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1992). Pronoun resolution and discourse models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 266-283.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1990). Dimensions of inference. In A. Graesser and G. Bower (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Vol. 25. Inferences and text comprehension (pp 313-328). New York: Academic Press.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1990). Textual inferences: Models and measures. In D.A. Balota, G.B. Flores d’Arcais, & K. Rayner (Eds.), Comprehension Processes in Reading (pp. 403-421). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1989). Memory models, text processing, and cue-dependent retrieval. In F.I.M. Craik & H.L. Roediger (Eds.), pp 73-92. Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1989). Semantic associations and elaborative inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 326-338.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1989). Assessing the occurrence of elaborative inference with recognition: Compatibility checking vs compound cue theory. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 547-563.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1989). Inferences about contextually-defined categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 1134-1146.

McKoon, G., Ratcliff, R., & Seifert, C. (1989). Making the connection: Generalized knowledge structures in story understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 711-734.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1988). Contextually relevant aspects of meaning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 331-343.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1986). Inferences about predictable events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 12, 82-91.

Seifert, C., McKoon, G., Abelson, R.P., & Ratcliff, R. (1986). Memory connections between thematically similar episodes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 220-231.

McKoon, G., Ratcliff, R., & Dell, G. (1985). The role of semantic facilitation in episodic retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 742-751.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1984). Priming and on-line text comprehension. In: Kieras, D.E., & M.A. Just (Eds.), New Methods in Reading Comprehension Research (pp. 119-128). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Dell, G., McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1983). The activation of antecedent information during the processing of anaphoric reference in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 121-132.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1982). Speed and accuracy in the processing of false statements about semantic information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 8, 16-36.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1981). The comprehension processes and memory structures involved in instrumental inference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 671-682.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1980). Priming in item recognition: The organization of propositions in memory for text. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 19, 369-386.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1980). The comprehension processes and memory structures involved in anaphoric reference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 668-682.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1979). Priming in episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 463-480.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1978). Priming in item recognition: Evidence for the propositional structure of sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 403-417.

Driving

Ratcliff, R. (2015). Modeling one-choice and two-choice driving tasks. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 77, 2134-2144.

Ratcliff, R., & Strayer, D. (2014). Modeling simple driving tasks with a one-boundary diffusion model. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21, 577-589.

Economics

Johnson, E., & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Computational and process models of decision-making in psychology and behavioral economics. In P.W. Glimcher & and E. Fehr (Eds.), Neuroeconomics: Decision-Making and the Brain 2nd ed.. New York: Academic Press.

Philiastides., M.G. & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Influence of branding on preference-based decision making. Psychological Science, 24, 1208-1215.

Experimental Methodology

Greene, S., Ratcliff, R, & McKoon, G. (1988). A flexible programming language for cognitive psychology experiments. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 20, 119-128.
Steve Greene won the Student Award from the Society for Computers in Psychology for this article.

Ratcliff, R., Pino, C., & Burns, W.T. (1986). An inexpensive real-time microcomputer-based cognitive laboratory system. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 18, 214-221.

Ratcliff, R. & Layton, W. M. (1981). A microcomputer interface for control of real time experiments in cognitive psychology. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 13, 216-220.

Hypoglycemia

Geddes, J., Ratcliff, R., Allerhand, M., Childers, R., Wright, R.J., Frier, B.M., & Deary, I.J. (2010). Modeling the effects of hypoglycemia on a two-choice task in adult humans. Neuropsychology, 24, 652-660.

Methodology/Memory/Perception

Forstmann, B. U., Ratcliff, R., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2016). Sequential sampling models in cognitive neuroscience: Advantages, applications, and extensions. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 641-666.

Ratcliff, R., Smith, P.L., Brown, S.D., & McKoon, G. (2016). Diffusion decision model: Current issues and history. Trends in Cognitive Science, 20, 260-281.

Voskuilen, C., & Ratcliff, R. (2016). Modeling confidence and response time in associative recognition. Journal of Memory and Language86, 60-96.

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Childers, R. (2015). Pointing, looking at, and pressing keys. A diffusion model account of response modalityJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41, 1515-1523.

Hawkins, G. E., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S. D. (2015). Discriminating evidence accumulation from urgency signals in speeded decision making. Journal of Neurophysiology, 114, 40-47.

Hawkins, G. E., Forstmann, B. U., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S. D. (2015). Revisiting the evidence for collapsing boundaries and urgency signals in perceptual decision-makingJournal of Neuroscience, 35, 2476-2484.

Ratcliff, R. & Childers, R. (2015). Individual differences and fitting methods for the two-choice diffusion model. Decision, 2, 237-279.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P. L. (2015). Modeling simple decisions and applications using a diffusion model. In J.R. Busemeyer, Z. Wang, J.T. Townsend, & A. Eidels (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Computational and Mathematical Psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Ratcliff, R., Smith, P.L., & McKoon, G. (2015). Modeling regularities in response time and accuracy data with the diffusion modelCurrent Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 458-470.

Smith, P.L. & Ratcliff, R. (2015). Diffusion and random walk processes. In James D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences, 2nd edition, Vol 6 (pp. 395-401). Oxford: Elsevier.

Smith, P.L. & Ratcliff, R. (2015). An introduction to the diffusion model of decision making. [uncorrected proofs] In B. U. Forstmann, & E.-J. Wagenmakers (Eds.), An Introduction to Model-Based Cognitive Neuroscience (pp. 49-70). Springer: New York.

Ratcliff, R. (2014). Measuring psychometric functions with the diffusion model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 870-888.

Smith, P. L., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2014). The diffusion model is not a deterministic growth model: Comment on Jones and Dzhafarov (2013). Psychological Review, 121, 679-688.

Smith, P. L., Ratcliff, R., & Sewell, D. K. (2014). Modeling perceptual discrimination in dynamic noise: Time-changed diffusion and release from inhibition. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 59, 94-113.

Starns, J.J., & Ratcliff, R. (2014). Validating the unequal-variance assumption in recognition memory using response time distributions instead of ROC functions: A diffusion model analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 70, 36-52.

van Ravenzwaaij, D., Boekel, W., Forstmann, B.U., Ratcliff, R., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2014). Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1794-1805.

White, C.N., Kapucu, A., Bruno, D., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2014). Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membershipCognition and Emotion, 28, 867-880.

Ratcliff, R. (2013). Parameter variability and distributional assumptions in the diffusion model. Psychological Review, 120, 281-292.

Ratcliff, R. (2013). Response time: Data and theory. In Zhong-lin Lu (Ed.), Progress in cognitive science: From cellular mechanisms to computational theories (pp. 31-62). Peking: Peking University Press.

Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2013). Modeling response times, choices, and confidence judgments in decision making: recognition memory and motion discrimination. Psychological Review, 120, 697-719.

Dube, C., Starns, J.J., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Beyond ROC curvature: Strength effects and response time data support continuous-evidence models of recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 389-406.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Aging and IQ effects on associative recognition and priming in item recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 416-437.

Ratcliff, R. (2012). Response time distributions. In H. Cooper (Ed.), APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology: Vol. 1. Foundations, Planning, Measures, and Psychometrics. Washington, D.C.: APA.

Ratcliff, R., & Frank, M. (2012). Reinforcement-based decision making in corticostriatal circuits: mutual constraints by neurocomputational and diffusion models. Neural Computation, 24, 1186-1229.

Starns, J.J., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2012). Evaluating the unequal-variability and dual-process explanations of zROC slopes with response time data and the diffusion model. Cognitive Psychology, 64, 1-34.

Starns, J.J., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2012). Modeling single versus multiple systems in implicit and explicit memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 195-196.

Starns, J.J., Ratcliff, R., & White, C. (2012). Diffusion model drift rates can be influenced by decision processes: An analysis of the strength-based mirror effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1137-1151.

Starns, J.J., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Mixing strong and weak targets provides no evidence against the unequal-variance explanation of zROC slope: A comment on Koen & Yonelinas (2010). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 793-801.

Starns, J.J., White, C.N., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). The strength-based mirror effect in subjective strength ratings: the evidence for differentiation can be produced without differentiation. Memory and Cognition, 40, 1189-1199.

White, C.N., Brown, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). A test of Bayesian observer models of processing in the Eriksen flanker task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 489-497.

Kuhn, S., Schmiedek, F., Schott, B., Ratcliff, R., Heinze, H-J., Duzel, E., Lindenberger, U.,
and Levden, M. (2011). Brain areas consistently linked to individual differences in perceptual decision-making in younger as well as older adults before and after training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2147-2158.

Petrov, A.A., Van Horn, N.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Dissociable perceptual learning mechanisms revealed by diffusion-model analysis of the patterns of specificity. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, online 11 March 2011. Supplementary material available here.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2011). Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 464-487.

Sajda, P., Philiastides, M.G., Heekeren, H., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Linking neuronal variability to perceptual decision making via neuroimaging. In M. Ding & D.L. Glanzman, The dynamic brain: An exploration of neuronal variability and its functional significance (pp. 214-232). New York: Oxford University Press.

White, C.N., Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2011). Diffusion models of the flanker task: Discrete versus gradual attentional selection. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 210-238.

Leite, F. P., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). Modeling reaction time and accuracy of multiple-alternative decisions. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 72,246-273.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P. L. (2010). Perceptual discrimination in static and dynamic noise: The temporal relation between perceptual encoding and decision-making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 70-94.

Starns, J.J., White, C.N., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). A direct test of the differentiation mechanism: REM, BDCMEM, and the strength-based mirror effect in recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 18-34.

Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2009). Modeling confidence and response time in recognition memory. Psychological Review, 116, 59-83.

Smith, P. L., & Ratcliff, R. (2009). An integrated theory of attention and decision making in visual signal detection. Psychological Review,116, 283-317.

Smith, P. L., Lee, Y.-E., Wolfgang, B. J., & Ratcliff, R. (2009). Attention and the detection of masked radial frequency patterns: Data and model. Vision Research, 49, 1363-1377.

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2008). A model of letter position coding: The overlap model. Psychological Review, 115, 577-601.

Ratcliff, R. (2008). The EZ diffusion method: Too EZ? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15, 1218-1228. (*A supplement to this paper is also available here.)

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2008). The diffusion decision model: Theory and data for two-choice decision tasks. Neural Computation, 20, 873-922.

Ratcliff, R., Schmiedek, F., & McKoon, G. (2008). A diffusion model explanation of the worst performance rule for reaction time and IQ. Intelligence, 36, 10-17.

Starns, J.J. & Ratcliff, R. (2008). Two dimensions are not better than one: STREAK and the univariate signal detection model of remember/know performance. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 169-182.

Leite, F.P., Ratcliff, R., & White, C.N. (2007). Individual differences on speeded cognitive tasks: Comment on Chen, Hale, and Myerson (2007). Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 14, 1007-1009.

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2007). A model of the go/no-go task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 389-413.

Philiastides, M.G., Ratcliff, R., & Sajda, P. (2006). Neural representation of task difficulty and decision-making during perceptual categorization: A timing diagram. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 8965-8975.

Ratcliff, R. (2006). Modeling response signal and response time data. Cognitive Psychology, 53, 195-237.

Brown, S., Ratcliff, R., & Smith, P.L. (2006). Evaluating methods for approximating stochastic differential equations. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 402-410.

Smith, P.L., Ratcliff, R. & Wolfgang, B.J. (2004). Attention orienting and the time course of perceptual decisions: Response time distributions with masked and unmasked displays. Vision Research, 44, 1297-1320.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Naive nonparametric bootstrap model weights are biased. Biometrics, 60, 281-283.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P. & Iverson, G.J. (2004). Assessing model mimicry using the parametric bootstrap. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 48, 28-50.

Rouder, J.N. & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Comparing categorization models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 63-82.

Ratcliff, R., Spieler, D. & McKoon, G. (2004). Analysis of group differences in processing speed: Where are the models of processing? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 755-769.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P.L. (2004).  A comparison of sequential sampling models for two-choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 111, 333-367.

Ratcliff, R., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2002). Estimating parameters of the diffusion model: Approaches to dealing with contaminant reaction times and parameter variability. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 438-481.

Ratcliff, R. (2002). A diffusion model account of reaction time and accuracy in a brightness discrimination task: Fitting real data and failing to fit fake but plausible data. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 278-291.

Tuerlinckx, F., Maris, E., Ratcliff, R., & De Boeck, P. (2001). A comparison of four methods for simulating the diffusion process. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 33, 443-456.

Ratcliff, R. (2001). Putting noise into neurophysiological models of simple decision making (letter). Nature Neuroscience, 4, 336.

Ratcliff, R. (2001). Diffusion and random walk processes. International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences, Oxford, England: Elsevier, 6, 3668-3673.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2001).  Counter model for word identification: A reply to Bowers (1999). Psychological Review, 108, 674-681.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). Modeling the effects of repetition and word frequency in perceptual identification. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 713-717.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). Memory models. In E. Tulving and F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), pp. 571-582. Oxford Handbook of Memory, Oxford University Press: New York.

Ratcliff, R., & Rouder, J.N. (2000). A diffusion model account of masking in two-choice letter identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 127-140.

Rouder, J.N., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). A neural network model of implicit memory for object recognition. Psychological Science, 11, 13-19.

Ratcliff, R., Van Zandt, T., & McKoon, G. (1999). Connectionist and diffusion models of reaction time. Psychological Review, 106, 261-300.

Ratcliff, R., & Rouder, J.N. (1998). Modeling response times for two-choice decisions. Psychological Science, 9, 347-356.

Ratcliff, R. (1998). The role of mathematical psychology in experimental psychology. Australian Journal of Psychology, 50, 129-130.

Ratcliff, R., Allbritton, D.W., & McKoon, G. (1997). Bias in auditory priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 143-152.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1997). A counter model for implicit priming in perceptual word identification. Psychological Review, 104, 319-343.

Balakrishnan, J.D., & Ratcliff, R. (1996). Testing models of decision making using confidence ratings in classification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 615-633.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1996). Separating implicit from explicit retrieval processes in perceptual identification. Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 500-511.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1996). Bias effects in implicit memory tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 403-421.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1995). Conceptual combinations and relational contexts in free association and in priming in lexical decision. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 527-533.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1995). How should implicit memory phenomena be modeled? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 777-784.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1995). Bias in the priming of object decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 754-767.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1995). Sequential effects in lexical decision: Tests of compound cue retrieval theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1380-1388.

Ratcliff, R., Van Zandt, T., & McKoon, G. (1995). Process dissociation, single process theories, and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124, 352-374.

Sheu, C-F, & Ratcliff, R. (1995). The application of Fourier deconvolution to reaction time data: A cautionary note. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 285-299.

Van Zandt, T., & Ratcliff, R. (1995). Statistical mimicking of reaction time data: Single-process models, parameter variability, and mixtures. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 20-54.

Ratcliff, R. (1994). Using computers in empirical and theoretical work in cognitive psychology. Invited plenary address for the Computers in Psychology conference. Behavior Research Methods Instruments, and Computers, 26, 94-106.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1994). Retrieving information from memory: Spreading activation theories versus compound cue theories. Psychological Review, 101, 177-184.

Ratcliff, R., McKoon, G. & Tindall, M.H. (1994). Empirical generality of data from recognition memory receiver-operating characteristic functions and implications for the global memory models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 763-785.

Ratcliff R. (1993). Methods for dealing with reaction time outliers. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 510-532.

Shiffrin, R.M., Ratcliff, R., Murnane, K., & Nobel, P. (1993). TODAM and the list-strength and list-length effects: Comment on Murdock and Kahana (1993a). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 1445-1449.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1992). Spreading activation versus compound cue accounts of priming: Mediated priming revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 18, 1155-1172.

Ratcliff, R., Sheu, C-F, & Gronlund, S.D. (1992). Testing global memory models using ROC curves. Psychological Review, 99, 518-535.

Ratcliff, R. (1992). Models of Memory. In The Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory, L.R. Squire (Editor in Chief). MacMillan: NY.

Gronlund, S.D. & Ratcliff, R. (1991). Analysis of the Hockley & Murdock decision model. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 35, 319-344.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1991). Using ROC data and priming results to test global memory models. In S. Lewandowsky and W.E. Hockley (Eds.), Relating Theory and Data: Essays on Human Memory in Honor of Bennet B. Murdock, Jr. (pp.279-296). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gronlund, S.D., Sheu, C-F, & Ratcliff, R. (1990). Implementation of global memory models with software that does symbolic computation. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 22, 228-235.

Ratcliff, R. (1990). Connectionist models of recognition memory: Constraints imposed by learning and forgetting functions. Psychological Review, 97, 285-308.

Ratcliff, R, Clark, S.E., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1990). List strength effect I: Data and Discussion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 163-178.

Shiffrin, R.M., Ratcliff, R., & Clark, S. (1990). List strength effect II: Theoretical mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 179-195.

Gronlund, S.D., Sheu, C-F, & Ratcliff, R. (1990). Implementation of global memory models with software that does symbolic computation. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 22, 228-235.

Gronlund, S.D. & Ratcliff, R. (1989). Time course of item and associative information: Implications for global memory models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 846-858.

Ratcliff, R. (1989). Commentary on Parallel-Processing Mechanisms and Processing of Organized Information in Human Memory. In Anderson, J. A. & Hinton, G. (Eds.), Parallel Models in Associative Memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, revised edition (reprinted with commentary).

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1989). Similarity information versus relational information: Differences in the time course of retrieval.Cognitive Psychology, 21, 139-155.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1989). Memory models, text processing, and cue-dependent retrieval. In F.I.M. Craik & H.L. Roediger (Eds.), pp 73-92. Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honour of Endel Tulving. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ratcliff, R., McKoon, G. & Verwoerd, M. (1989). A bias interpretation of facilitation in perceptual identification. Journal of ExperimentalPsychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 378-387.

Ratcliff, R. (1988). A note on the mimicking of additive reaction time models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 32, 192-204.

Ratcliff, R. (1988). Continuous versus discrete information processing: Modeling the accumulation of partial information. Psychological Review, 95, 238-255.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1988). A retrieval theory of priming in memory. Psychological Review, 95, 385-408.

Ratcliff, R. (1987). Order information and distributed memory models. In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Cognitive Science Society (pp. 474-487). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Ratcliff, R. (1987). More on the speed and accuracy of positive and negative responses. Psychological Review, 94, 277-280.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1986). The automatic activation of episodic information in a semantic memory task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 108-115.

McKoon, G., Ratcliff, R., & Dell, G. (1986). A critical evaluation of the semantic/episodic distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 295-306.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1986). More on the distinction between episodic and semantic memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 312-313.

Seifert, C., McKoon, G., Abelson, R.P., & Ratcliff, R. (1986). Memory connections between thematically similar episodes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 220-231.

McKoon, G., Ratcliff, R., & Dell, G. (1985). The role of semantic facilitation in episodic retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 742-751.

Ratcliff, R. (1985). Theoretical interpretations of speed and accuracy of positive and negative responses. Psychological Review, 92, 212-225.

Ratcliff, R., Hockley, W., & McKoon, G. (1985). Components of activation: Repetition and priming effects in lexical decision and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 435-450.

Ratcliff, R. & Hacker, M.J. (1982). On the misguided use of reaction time differences: A reply to Proctor and Rao (1982). Perception and Psychophysics, 31, 603-604.

Dell, G., Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1981). Study and test repetition effects in item recognition priming. American Journal of Psychology,94, 497-511.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1981). The comprehension processes and memory structures involved in instrumental inference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 671-682.

Ratcliff, R. (1981). A theory of order relations in perceptual matching. Psychological Review, 88, 552-572.

Ratcliff, R. (1981). Parallel processing mechanisms and processing of organized information in human memory. In Anderson, J. A. & Hinton, G. (Eds.), Parallel Models in Associative Memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Ratcliff, R., & Hacker, M.J. (1981). Speed and accuracy of same and different responses in perceptual matching. Perception andPsychophysics, 30, 303-307.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1981). Automatic and strategic priming in recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 204-215.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1981). Does activation really spread? Psychological Review, 88, 454-462.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1980). Priming in item recognition: The organization of propositions in memory for text. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 19, 369-386.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1980). The comprehension processes and memory structures involved in anaphoric reference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 668-682.

Ratcliff, R. (1980). A note on modeling accumulation of information when the rate of accumulation changes over time. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 21, 178-184.

Ratcliff, R. & Hockley, W. E. (1980). Repeated negatives in item recognition: Nonmonotonic lag functions. In R.S. Nickerson (Ed.),Attention and Performance VIII. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1979). Priming in episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 463-480.

Ratcliff, R. (1979). Group reaction time distributions and an analysis of distribution statistics. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 446-461.

Hacker, M. J., & Ratcliff, R. (1979). A revised table of d’ for M-alternative forced choice. Perception and Psychophysics, 26, 168-170.

Ratcliff, R. (1978). A theory of memory retrieval. Psychological Review, 85, 59-108.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (1978). Priming in item recognition: Evidence for the propositional structure of sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 403-417.

Ratcliff, R. (1976). A mathematical model for paced serial addition. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 13, 46-78.

Ratcliff, R. & Murdock, B. B., Jr. (1976). Retrieval processes in recognition memory. Psychological Review, 83, 190-214.

 

Neuroscience, EEG + Single-Cell Recording

Forstmann, B. U., Ratcliff, R., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2016). Sequential sampling models in cognitive neuroscience: Advantages, applications, and extensions. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 641-666.

Hawkins, G. E., Forstmann, B. U., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S. D. (2015). Revisiting the evidence for collapsing boundaries and urgency signals in perceptual decision-makingJournal of Neuroscience, 35, 2476-2484.

Mulder, M.J., Boekel, W., Ratcliff, R., & Forstmann, B.U. (2014). Cortico-subthalamic connection predicts individual differences in value-driven choice bias. Brain Structure and Function, 219, 1239-1249.

Mulder, M.J., Wagenmakers, E.J., Ratcliff, R., Wouter Boekel, W. & Forstmann, B.U. (2012). Bias in the brain: a diffusion model analysis of prior probability and potential payoff. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2335-2343.

Ratcliff, R., & Frank, M. (2012). Reinforcement-based decision making in corticostriatal circuits: mutual constraints by neurocomputational and diffusion models. Neural Computation, 24, 1186-1229.

Winkel, J., Van Maanen, L., Ratcliff, R., van der Schaaf, M.E., van Schouwenburg, M.R., Cools, R., & Forstmann, B.U. (2012). Bromocriptine does not alter speed-accuracy tradeoff. Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience, 6, 1-8. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00126.

Kuhn, S., Schmiedek, F., Schott, B., Ratcliff, R., Heinze, H-J., Duzel, E., Lindenberger, U.,
and Levden, M. (2011). Brain areas consistently linked to individual differences in perceptual decision-making in younger as well as older adults before and after training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2147-2158.

Ratcliff, R., Hasegawa, Y.T., Hasegawa, Y.P., Childers, R., Smith, P.L., & Segraves, M.A. (2011). Inhibition in superior colliculus neurons in a brightness discrimination task? Neural Computation, 23, 1790-1820.

Sajda, P., Philiastides, M.G., Heekeren, H., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Linking neuronal variability to perceptual decision making via neuroimaging. In M. Ding & D.L. Glanzman, The dynamic brain: An exploration of neuronal variability and its functional significance (pp. 214-232). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ratcliff, R., Philiastides, M. G., & Sajda, P. (2009). Quality of evidence for perceptual decision making is indexed by trial-to-trial variability of the EEG. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 6539-6544.

Ratcliff, R., Hasegawa, Y.T., Hasegawa, Y.P., Smith, P.L., & Segraves, M.A. (2007). Dual diffusion model for single-cell recording data from the superior colliculus in a brightness-discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 1756-1774.

Farrell, S., Ratcliff, R., Cherian, A., & Segraves, M. (2006). Modeling unidimensional categorization in monkeys. Learning and Behavior, 34, 86-101.

Ferrera, V. P., Grinband, J., Xiao, Q, Hirsch, J., Ratcliff, R. (2006). Distinguishing evidence accumulation from response bias in categorical decision making. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts.

Philiastides, M.G., Ratcliff, R., & Sajda, P. (2006). Neural representation of task difficulty and decision-making during perceptual categorization: A timing diagram. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 8965-8975.

Smith, P.L., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Psychology and neurobiology of simple decisions. Trends in Neuroscience, 27, 161-168.

Ratcliff, R., Cherian, A., & Segraves, M. (2003). A comparison of macaque behavior and superior colliculus neuronal activity to predictions from models of simple two-choice decisions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 1392-1407.

Segraves, M.A., Cherian, A., & Ratcliff, R. (1999). Rhesus monkey performance and superior colliculus activity during a reaction time task. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 25, 19-20.

Numeracy

Thompson, C.A., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (in press). Individual differences in the components of children’s and adults’ information processing for simple symbolic and non-symbolic numeric decisionsJournal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Ratcliff, R., Thompson, C.A., & McKoon, G. (2015). Modeling individual differences in response time and accuracy in numeracy. Cognition, 137, 115-136.

Perception

Hawkins, G. E., Forstmann, B. U., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S. D. (2015). Revisiting the evidence for collapsing boundaries and urgency signals in perceptual decision-makingJournal of Neuroscience, 35, 2476-2484.

Smith, P. L., Ratcliff, R., & Sewell, D. K. (2014). Modeling perceptual discrimination in dynamic noise: Time-changed diffusion and release from inhibition. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 59, 94-113.

van Ravenzwaaij, D., Boekel, W., Forstmann, B.U., Ratcliff, R., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2014). Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1794-1805.

Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2013). Modeling response times, choices, and confidence judgments in decision making: recognition memory and motion discrimination. Psychological Review, 120, 697-719.

White, C.N., Brown, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). A test of Bayesian observer models of processing in the Eriksen flanker task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 489-497.

Kuhn, S., Schmiedek, F., Schott, B., Ratcliff, R., Heinze, H-J., Duzel, E., Lindenberger, U.,
and Levden, M. (2011). Brain areas consistently linked to individual differences in perceptual decision-making in younger as well as older adults before and after training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2147-2158.

Petrov, A.A., Van Horn, N.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Dissociable perceptual learning mechanisms revealed by diffusion-model analysis of the patterns of specificity. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, online 11 March 2011. Supplementary material available here.

Sajda, P., Philiastides, M.G., Heekeren, H., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Linking neuronal variability to perceptual decision making via neuroimaging. In M. Ding & D.L. Glanzman, The dynamic brain: An exploration of neuronal variability and its functional significance (pp. 214-232). New York: Oxford University Press.

White, C.N., Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2011). Diffusion models of the flanker task: Discrete versus gradual attentional selection. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 210-238.

Leite, F. P., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). Modeling reaction time and accuracy of multiple-alternative decisions. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 72,246-273.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P. L. (2010). Perceptual discrimination in static and dynamic noise: The temporal relation between perceptual encoding and decision-making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 70-94.

Smith, P. L., & Ratcliff, R. (2009). An integrated theory of attention and decision making in visual signal detection. Psychological Review, 116, 283-317.

Smith, P. L., Lee, Y.-E., Wolfgang, B. J., & Ratcliff, R. (2009). Attention and the detection of masked radial frequency patterns: Data and model. Vision Research, 49, 1363-1377.

Philiastides, M.G., Ratcliff, R., & Sajda, P. (2006). Neural representation of task difficulty and decision-making during perceptual categorization: A timing diagram. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 8965-8975.

Smith, P.L., Ratcliff, R. & Wolfgang, B.J. (2004). Attention orienting and the time course of perceptual decisions: Response time distributions with masked and unmasked displays. Vision Research, 44, 1297-1320.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). Modeling the effects of repetition and word frequency in perceptual identification. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 713-717.

Ratcliff, R., & Rouder, J.N. (2000). A diffusion model account of masking in two-choice letter identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 127-140.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1997). A counter model for implicit priming in perceptual word identification. Psychological Review, 104, 319-343.

Ratcliff, R., McKoon, G. & Verwoerd, M. (1989). A bias interpretation of facilitation in perceptual identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 378-387.

Ratcliff, R. (1981). A theory of order relations in perceptual matching. Psychological Review, 88, 552-572.

Ratcliff, R., & Hacker, M.J. (1981). Speed and accuracy of same and different responses in perceptual matching. Perception and Psychophysics, 30, 303-307.

Sleep Deprivation

Ratcliff, R. & Van Dongen, H.P.A. (2011). A diffusion model for one-choice reaction time tasks and the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 11285-11290. Supplementary material available here.

Ratcliff, R. & Van Dongen, H.P.A. (2009). Sleep deprivation affects multiple distinct cognitive processes. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,16, 742-751.

Struggling Adult Readers

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2016). Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests. Cognition, 146, 453-469.