Roger Ratcliff: Recent Publications (Click here for publications prior to 2000)


Submitted and in preparation

Ratcliff, R., Huang-Pollock, C., & McKoon, G. (submitted). Modeling individual differences in the go/no-go task with a diffusion model.

Ratcliff, R., Sederberg, P., Smith, T., & Childers, R. (submitted). A single trial analysis of EEG in recognition memory: Tracking the neural correlates of memory strength.

Ratcliff, R. & Van Dongen, H.P.A. (submitted). The effects of sleep deprivation on item and associative recognition memory.

Thapar, A., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (submitted). Diffusion model analyses of age differences in practice effects for two-choice tasks.

Thompson, C.A., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (submitted). Individual differences in the components of children's and adults' information processing for simple symbolic and non-symbolic numeric decisions.

Voskuilen, C., Ratcliff, R., & Smith, P.L. (submitted). Comparing fixed and collapsing bound versions of the diffusion model.

In press

Aschenbrenner, A.J., Balota, D.A., Gordon, B.A., Ratcliff, R., & Morris, J.C. (in press). A diffusion model analysis of episodic recognition in individuals with a family history for Alzheimer disease: The Adult Child Study. Neuropsychology.

de Hollander, G., Labruna, L., Sellaro, R., Trutti, A., Colzato, L., Ratcliff, R., Ivry, R., & Forstmann, B.U. (in press). Transcranial direct current stimulation does not influence the speed-accuracy tradeoff in perceptual decision making: Evidence from three independent replication studies. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Hawkins, G. E., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S. D. (in press). Discriminating evidence accumulation from urgency signals in speeded decision making. Journal of Neurophysiology.

Huang-Pollock, C., Ratcliff, R., McKoon, G., Shapiro, Z., Weigard, A., & Galloway-Long, H. (in press). Using the diffusion model to explain cognitive deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

White, C.N., Ratcliff, R., & Vasey, M.W. (in press). Anxiety-related threat bias in recognition memory: The moderating effect of list composition. Cognition and Emotion.

2016

Forstmann, B. U., Ratcliff, R., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2016). Sequential sampling models in cognitive neuroscience: Advantages, applications, and extensions. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 641-666.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2016). Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests. Cognition, 146, 453-469.

Ratcliff, R., Smith, P.L., Brown, S.D., & McKoon, G. (2016). Diffusion decision model: Current issues and history. Trends in Cognitive Science, 20, 260-281.

Voskuilen, C., & Ratcliff, R. (2016). Modeling confidence and response time in associative recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 86, 60-96.

2015

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Childers, R. (2015). Pointing, looking at, and pressing keys. A diffusion model account of response modality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41, 1515-1523.

Hawkins, G. E., Forstmann, B. U., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Ratcliff, R., & Brown, S. D. (2015). Revisiting the evidence for collapsing boundaries and urgency signals in perceptual decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 2476-2484.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2015). Cognitive theories in discourse-processing research. In E.J. O'Brien, A.E. Cook, & R.F. Lorch, Jr., Inferences during reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ratcliff, R. (2015). Modeling one-choice and two-choice driving tasks. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 77, 2134-2144.

Ratcliff, R. & Childers, R. (2015). Individual differences and fitting methods for the two-choice diffusion model. Decision, 2, 237-279.

Ratcliff, R. & McKoon, G. (2015). Aging effects in item and associative recognition memory for pictures and words. Psychology and Aging, 30, 669-674.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P. L. (2015). Modeling simple decisions and applications using a diffusion model. In J.R. Busemeyer, Z. Wang, J.T. Townsend, & A. Eidels (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Computational and Mathematical Psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [uncorrected proof s]

Ratcliff, R., Smith, P.L., & McKoon, G. (2015). Modeling regularities in response time and accuracy data with the diffusion model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 458-470.

Ratcliff, R., Thompson, C.A., & McKoon, G. (2015). Modeling individual differences in response time and accuracy in numeracy. Cognition, 137, 115-136.

Smith, P.L. & Ratcliff, R. (2015). Diffusion and random walk processes. In James D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences, 2nd edition, Vol 6 (pp. 395-401). Oxford: Elsevier.

Smith, P.L. & Ratcliff, R. (2015). An introduction to the diffusion model of decision making. [uncorrected proofs] In B. U. Forstmann, & E.-J. Wagenmakers (Eds.), An Introduction to Model-Based Cognitive Neuroscience (pp. 49-70). Springer: New York.

Yap, M. J., Sibley, D. E., Balota, D. A., Ratcliff, R., & Rueckl, J. (2015). Responding to nonwords in the lexical decision task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 597-613.

2014

Mulder, M.J., Boekel, W., Ratcliff, R., & Forstmann, B.U. (2014). Cortico-subthalamic connection predicts individual differences in value-driven choice bias. Brain Structure and Function, 219, 1239-1249.

Ratcliff, R. (2014). Measuring psychometric functions with the diffusion model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 870-888.

Ratcliff, R., & Strayer, D. (2014). Modeling simple driving tasks with a one-boundary diffusion model. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21, 577-589.

Smith, P. L., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2014). The Diffusion Model is not a Deterministic Growth Model: Comment on Jones and Dzhafarov (2013). Psychological Review, 121, 679-688.

Smith, P. L., Ratcliff, R., & Sewell, D. K. (2014). Modeling perceptual discrimination in dynamic noise: Time-changed diffusion and release from inhibition. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 59, 95-113.

Starns, J.J., & Ratcliff, R. (2014). Validating the unequal-variance assumption in recognition memory using response time distributions instead of ROC functions: A diffusion model analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 70, 36-52.

van Ravenzwaaij, D., Boekel, W., Forstmann, B.U., Ratcliff, R., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2014). Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1794-1805.

White, C.N., Kapucu, A., Bruno, D., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2014). Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership. Cognition and Emotion, 28, 867-880.

2013

Gomez, P., Perea, M. & Ratcliff, R. (2013). A diffusion model account of masked versus unmasked priming: Are they qualitatively different? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1731-1740.

Johnson, E., & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Computational and process models of decision-making in psychology and behavioral economics. In P.W. Glimcher & and E. Fehr (Eds.), Neuroeconomics: Decision-Making and the Brain 2nd ed.. New York: Academic Press.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Aging and predicting inferences: A diffusion model analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 240-254.

Philiastides., M.G. & Ratcliff, R. (2013). Influence of branding on preference-based decision making. Psychological Science, 24, 1208-1215.

Ratcliff, R. (2013). Parameter variability and distributional assumptions in the diffusion model. Psychological Review, 120, 281-292.

Ratcliff, R. (2013). Response time: Data and theory. In Zhong-lin Lu (Ed.), Progress in cognitive science: From cellular mechanisms to computational theories (pp. 31-62). Peking University Press.

Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2013). Modeling response times, choices, and confidence judgments in decision making: recognition memory and motion discrimination. Psychological Review, 120, 697-719.

2012

Dube, C., Starns, J.J., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Beyond ROC curvature: Strength effects and response time data support continuous-evidence models of recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 389-406.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Aging and IQ effects on associative recognition and priming in item recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 416-437.

Mulder, M.J., Wagenmakers, E.J., Ratcliff, R., Wouter Boekel, W. & Forstmann, B.U. (2012). Bias in the brain: a diffusion model analysis of prior probability and potential payoff. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2335-2343.

Ratcliff, R. (2012). Response time distributions. In H. Cooper (Ed.), APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology: Vol. 1. Foundations, Planning, Measures, and Psychometrics. Washington, D.C.: APA.

Ratcliff, R., & Frank, M. (2012). Reinforcement-based decision making in corticostriatal circuits: mutual constraints by neurocomputational and diffusion models. Neural Computation, 24, 1186-1229.

Ratcliff, R., Love, J., Thompson, C. A., & Opfer, J. (2012). Children are not like older adults: A diffusion model analysis of developmental changes in speeded responses. Child Development, 83, 367-381.

Starns, J.J., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Age-related differences in diffusion model boundary optimality with both trial-limited and time-limited tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 19, 139-145.

Starns, J.J., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2012). Evaluating the unequal-variability and dual-process explanations of zROC slopes with response time data and the diffusion model. Cognitive Psychology, 64, 1-34.

Starns, J.J., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2012). Modeling single versus multiple systems in implicit and explicit memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 195-196.

Starns, J.J., Ratcliff, R., & White, C. (2012). Diffusion model drift rates can be influenced by decision processes: An analysis of the strength-based mirror effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1137-1151.

Starns, J.J., Rotello, C.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Mixing strong and weak targets provides no evidence against the unequal-variance explanation of zROC slope: A comment on Koen & Yonelinas (2010). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 793-801.

Starns, J.J., White, C.N., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). The strength-based mirror effect in subjective strength ratings: the evidence for differentiation can be produced without differentiation. Memory and Cognition, 40, 1189-1199.

White, C.N., Brown, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). A test of Bayesian observer models of processing in the Eriksen flanker task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 489-497.

Winkel, J., Van Maanen, L., Ratcliff, R., van der Schaaf, M.E., van Schouwenburg, M.R., Cools, R., & Forstmann, B.U. (2012). Bromocriptine does not alter speed-accuracy tradeoff. Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience, 6, 1-8. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00126.

Yap, M.J., Balota, D.A., Sibley, D.E., & Ratcliff, R. (2012). Individual differences in visual word recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 53-79.

2011

Kuhn, S., Schmiedek, F., Schott, B., Ratcliff, R., Heinze, H-J., Duzel, E., Lindenberger, U., and Levden, M. (2011). Brain areas consistently linked to individual differences in perceptual decision-making in younger as well as older adults before and after training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2147-2158.

Leite, F. P., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). What cognitive processes driveresponse biases? A diffusion model analysis. Judgment and DecisionMaking, 6, 651-687.

Petrov, A.A., Van Horn, N.M., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Dissociable perceptual learning mechanisms revealed by diffusion-model analysis of the patterns of specificity. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, online 11 March 2011. Supplementary material available here.

Ratcliff, R., Hasegawa, Y.T., Hasegawa, Y.P., Childers, R., Smith, P.L., & Segraves, M.A. (2011). Inhibition in superior colliculus neurons in a brightness discrimination task? Neural Computation, 23, 1790-1820.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2011). Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 464-487.

Ratcliff, R. & Van Dongen, H.P.A. (2011). A diffusion model for one-choice reaction time tasks and the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 11285-11290. Supplementary material available here.

Sajda, P., Philiastides, M.G., Heekeren, H., & Ratcliff, R. (2011). Linking neuronal variability to perceptual decision making via neuroimaging. In M. Ding & D.L. Glanzman, The dynamic brain: An exploration of neuronal variability and its functional significance (pp. 214-232). New York: Oxford University Press.

White, C.N., Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2011). Diffusion models of the flanker task: Discrete versus gradual attentional selection. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 210-238.

2010

Leite, F. P., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). Modeling reaction time andaccuracy of multiple-alternative decisions. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 72,246-273.

Geddes, J., Ratcliff, R., Allerhand, M., Childers, R., Wright, R.J., Frier, B.M., & Deary, I.J. (2010). Modeling the effects of hypoglycemia on a two-choice task in adult humans. Neuropsychology, 24, 652-660.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P. L. (2010). Perceptual discrimination in static and dynamic noise: The temporal relation between perceptual encoding and decisionmaking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 70-94.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2010). Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks. Cognitive Psychology, 60, 127-157.

Starns, J.J., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). The effects of aging on the speed-accuracy compromise: Boundary optimalityin the diffusion model. Psychology and Aging, 25, 377-390.

Starns, J.J., White, C.N., & Ratcliff, R. (2010). A direct test of the differentiation mechanism: REM, BDCMEM, and the strength-based mirror effect in recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 18-34.

White, C. N., Ratcliff, R., Vasey, M. W., & McKoon, G. (2010). Anxiety enhances threat processing without competition among multiple inputs: A diffusion model analysis.Emotion, 10, 662-677.

White, C. N., Ratcliff, R., Vasey, M. W., & McKoon, G. (2010). Using diffusion models to understand clinical disorders. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54, 39-52.

2009

Ratcliff, R. & Van Dongen, H.P.A. (2009). Sleep deprivation affects multiple distinct cognitive processes. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 16, 742-751.

Ratcliff, R., Philiastides, M. G., & Sajda, P. (2009). Quality of evidence for perceptual decision making is indexed by trial-to-trial variability of the EEG. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 6539-6544.

Smith, P. L., & Ratcliff, R. (2009). An integrated theory of attention and decision making in visual signal detection. Psychological Review, 116, 283-317.

Ratcliff, R., & Starns, J.J. (2009). Modeling confidence and response time in recognition memory. Psychological Review, 116, 59-83.

Smith, P. L., Lee, Y.-E., Wolfgang, B. J., & Ratcliff, R. (2009). Attention and the detection of masked radial frequency patterns: Data and model. Vision Research, 49, 1363-1377.

White, C., Ratcliff, R., Vasey, M. & McKoon, G. (2009). Dysphoria and memory for emotional material: A diffusion model analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 181-205.

2008

Starns, J.J. & Ratcliff, R. (2008). Two dimensions are not better than one: STREAK and the univariate signal detection model of remember/know performance. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 169-182.

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2008). A model of letter position coding: The overlap model. Psychological Review, 115, 577-601.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2008). Meanings, Propositions, and Verbs. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15, 592-597.

Ratcliff, R. (2008). Modeling aging effects on two-choice tasks: Response signal and response time data. Psychology and Aging, 23, 900-916.

Ratcliff, R. (2008). The EZ diffusion method: Too EZ? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15, 1218-1228. (*A supplement to this paper is also available here.)

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2008). Passive parallel automatic minimalist processing. In, Better than Conscious? Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications for Institutions, C. Engel & W. Singer, (Eds.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2008). The diffusion decision model: Theory and data for two-choice decision tasks. Neural Computation, 20, 873-922.

Ratcliff, R., Schmiedek, F., & McKoon, G. (2008). A diffusion model explanation of the worst performance rule for reaction time and IQ. Intelligence, 36, 10-17.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G. (2008). A diffusion model account of criterion shifts in the lexical decision task. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 140-159.

2007

Leite, F.P., Ratcliff, R., & White, C.N. (2007). Individual differences on speeded cognitive tasks: Comment on Chen, Hale, and Myerson (2007). Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 14, 1007-1009.

Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M. (2007). A model of the go/no-go task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 389-413.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2007). Application of the diffusion model to two-choice tasks for adults 75-90 years old. Psychology and Aging, 22, 56-66.

Ratcliff, R., Hasegawa, Y.T., Hasegawa, Y.P., Smith, P.L., & Segraves, M.A. (2007). Dual diffusion model for single-cell recording data from the superior colliculus in a brightness-discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 1756-1774.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2007). Interactions of meaning and syntax: Implications for models of sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 270-290.

2006

Ferrera, V. P., Grinband, J., Xiao, Q, Hirsch, J., Ratcliff, R. (2006). Distinguishing evidence accumulation from response bias in categorical decision making. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2006). Aging and individual differences in rapid two-choice decisions. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 626-635.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2006). Aging, practice, and perceptual tasks: A diffusion model analysis. Psychology and Aging, 21, 353-371.

Farrell, S., Wagenmakers, E-J., & Ratcliff, R. (2006). 1/f noise in human cognition: Is it ubiquitous, and what does it mean? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 737-741.

Ratcliff, R. (2006). Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data Cognitive Psychology, 53, 195-237.

Philiastides, M.G., Ratcliff, R., & Sajda, P. (2006). Neural representation of task difficulty and decision-making during perceptual categorization: A timing diagram. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 8965-8975.

Brown, S., Ratcliff, R., & Smith, P.L. (2006). Evaluating methods for approximating stochastic differential equations. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 402-410.

Farrell, S., Ratcliff, R., Cherian, A., & Segraves, M. (2006). Modeling unidimensional categorization in monkeys. Learning and Behavior, 34, 86-101.

Rouder, J.N., & Ratcliff, R. (2006). Comparing exemplar- and rule-based theories of categorization. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 9-13.

2005

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2005). "Meaning through Syntax" in sentence production and comprehension: Reply to McRae et al. (2005). Psychological Review, 112, 1032-1039.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2005). Human cognition and a pile of sand: A discussion on serial correlations and self-organized criticality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 108-116.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., Smith, P. L., & McKoon, G. (2005). Aging and response times: A comparison of sequential sampling models. In, Measuring the Mind: Speed, Control, and Age, (pp. 3-32), J. Duncan, P. McLeod, & L. Phillips (Eds.), Oxford University Press: Oxford, England.

2004

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Naive nonparametric bootstrap model weights are biased. Biometrics, 60, 281-283.

Smith, P.L., Ratcliff, R. & Wolfgang, B.J. (2004). Attention orienting and the time course of perceptual decisions: Response time distributions with masked and unmasked displays. Vision Research, 44, 1297-1320.

Smith, P.L., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Psychology and neurobiology of simple decisions. Trends in Neuroscience, 27, 161-168.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., Gomez, P. & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging in the lexical-decision task. Psychology and Aging, 19, 278-289.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging on recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 408-424.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P. & Iverson, G.J. (2004). Assessing model mimicry using the parametric bootstrap. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 48, 28-50.

Rouder, J.N. & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Comparing categorization models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 63-82.

Ratcliff, R., Perea, M., Colangelo, A. & Buchanan, L. (2004). A diffusion model account of normal and impaired readers. Brain and Cognition, 55, 374-382.

Ratcliff, R., Spieler, D. & McKoon, G. (2004). Analysis of group differences in processing speed: Where are the models of processing? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 755-769.

Ratcliff, R. & Smith, P.L. (2004). A comparison of sequential sampling models for two-choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 111, 333-367.

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Estimation and interpretation of 1/f noise in human cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 579-615.

Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G. (2004). A diffusion model account of the lexical decision task. Psychological Review, 111, 159-182.

2003

Thapar, A., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2003). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging on letter discrimination. Psychology and Aging, 18, 415-429.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A. & McKoon, G. (2003). A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging on brightness discrimination. Perception and Psychophysics, 65, 523-535.

Ratcliff, R., Cherian, A., & Segraves, M. (2003). A comparison of macaque behavior and superior colliculus neuronal activity to predictions from models of simple two-choice decisions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 1392-1407.

McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490-525.

2002

Ratcliff, R., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2002). Estimating parameters of the diffusion model: Approaches to dealing with contaminant reaction times and parameter variability. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 438-481.

Ratcliff, R. (2002). A diffusion model account of reaction time and accuracy in a brightness discrimination task: Fitting real data and failing to fit fake but plausible data. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 278-291.

2001

Tuerlinckx, F., Maris, E., Ratcliff, R., & De Boeck, P. (2001). A comparison of four methods for simulating the diffusion process.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 33, 443-456.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2001). A multinomial model for short-term priming in word identification. Psychological Review, 108, 835-846.

Ratcliff, R., Thapar, A., & McKoon, G. (2001). The effects of aging on reaction time in a signal detection task. Psychology and Aging, 16, 323-341.

Ratcliff, R. (2001). Putting noise into neurophysiological models of simple decision making (letter). Nature Neuroscience, 4, 336.

Ratcliff, R. (2001). Diffusion and random walk processes. International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences, Oxford, England: Elsevier, 6, 3668-3673.

McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2001). Counter model for word identification: A reply to Bowers (1999). Psychological Review, 108, 674-681.

2000

Rouder, J.N., Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). A neural network model of implicit memory for object recognition. Psychological Science, 11, 13-19.

Ratcliff, R., Spieler, D. & McKoon, G. (2000). Explicitly modeling the effects of aging on response time. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 1-25.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). Modeling the effects of repetition and word frequency in perceptual identification. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 713-717.

Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (2000). Memory models. In E. Tulving and F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), pp. 571-582. Oxford Handbook of Memory, Oxford University Press: New York.

Ratcliff, R., & Rouder, J.N. (2000). A diffusion model account of masking in two-choice letter identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 127-140.

1999

Segraves, M.A., Cherian, A., & Ratcliff, R. (1999). Rhesus monkey performance and superior colliculus activity during a reaction time task. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 25, 19-20.

Ratcliff, R., Van Zandt, T., & McKoon, G. (1999). Connectionist and diffusion models of reaction time. Psychological Review, 106, 261-300.

REVISIONS DONE 3/28/16